LIG Keynote Speeches

Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  03 mai 2018
 

Reasoning on Data: Challenges and Applications

Marie-Christine ROUSSET

How to exploit knowledge to make better use of data is a timely issue at the crossroad of knowledge representation and reasoning, data management, and the semantic web.

Knowledge representation is emblematic of the symbolic approach of  Artificial Intelligence based on the development of explicit logic-based models processed by generic  reasoning algorithms that  are founded in logic. Recently, ontologies have evolved in computer science as computational artefacts to provide computer systems with a conceptual yet computational model of a particular domain of interest. Similarly to humans, computer systems can then base decisions on reasoning about domain knowledge. And humans can express their data analysis needs using terms of a shared vocabulary in their domain of interest or of expertise.

In this talk, I will show how reasoning on data can help to solve in a principled way several problems raised by modern data-centered applications in which data may be  ubiquitous, multi-form, multi-source and musti-scale. I will also show how knowlege representation formalisms and reasoning algorithms have evolved to face scalability issues and data quality challenges.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

Issues in Ethical Data Management

Serge ABITEBOUL
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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

On Turning Domain Knowledge into Tools

Jean-marc JÉZÉQUEL

One of the biggest challenges of the digital age is to turn human knowledge, know-how and procedures into software. When the domain of expertise is close enough to computer science, software engineers typically can manage it because they can understand the full spectrum of the problems, ranging from the problem domain (how to do the right thing) to the solution space in the computer (how to do the thing right).

However, when the domain stands far away from the software engineer's expertise, it is much more difficult to do the right thing. A lot of approaches have been developed over the years to handle this gap. In this talk we reflect on one of these approaches, based on the idea of using models to capture domain knowledge at the right level of abstraction, and software tools to transform these models into technical solutions. In this paradigm, the mission of software engineers becomes providing the domain experts with the right tool-supported modeling languages that is, turning domain knowledge into tools.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

Human-Computer Interaction: Back to the future and... forward to the past

Stéphane HUOT

Long before personal computers, the Internet and smartphones, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) was already at the heart of some of the visions that have shaped modern computing. But for years, priority has mostly been put on intrinsic power and development of features rather than how to use them. The popularization of digital devices such as smartphones, tablets or gaming consoles slowly reversed this trend and the argument of simplicity of use has replaced that of the intrinsic power. But it also led to a relative impoverishment of the possibilities offered by technologies that are paradoxically more powerful than ever. By hiding complexity rather than helping to master it, by keeping the myth alive that such devices make it possible to do a lot without efforts, the trend is now to sacrifice empowerment of users for simplicity of use.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
 - 
LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

Informal prospects in formal methods

Hélène KIRCHNER

Formal methods, rooted  in  logic and reasoning, traditionally aim to provide guarantees that systems behave correctly, thanks to verification technologies (based on concepts of model, computation, deduction, constraint solving). They strongly contribute to ensure safety, security and accountability of software and hardware systems. These guarantees must be addressed in the context of actual and future cyber systems where  machine learning techniques and autonomous decisions are expanding. 
Prospects in formal methods will be examined and challenges will be proposed, focusing on cybersecurity issues.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
 - 
LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

Interpersonal Human Machine Interaction

Mohamed CHETOUANI

Synchrony, engagement and learning are important abilities that allow sustaining dynamics of social interaction. In this talk, we will address these topics with an interpersonal interaction point of view. In particular, we will introduce interpersonal human-machine interactions schemes and models with a focus on definitions, sensing and evaluations of social signals and behaviors. We will show how these models are currently applied to detect engagement in multi-party human-robot interactions, detect human’s personality traits and task learning.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
 - 
LIG
 -  05 avril 2018
 

Fault tolerance in dynamic distributed systems

Pierre SENS

Nowadays, distributed systems are more and more versatile. Computing units can join, leave or move inside a global infrastructure. These features require the implementation of dynamic systems that can cope autonomously with changes in their structure. It therefore becomes necessary to define, develop, and validate distributed algorithms able to manage such dynamic at a large scale. 
Failure detection is a prerequisite to failure mitigation and a key component to build distributed algorithms requiring resilience.  We introduce the problem of failure detection in asynchronous network where the transmission delay is not known. We show how distributed failure detector oracles can be used to address fundamental problems such as consensus, k-set agreement, or mutual exclusion. Then, we focus on new advances and open issues for taking into account the dynamic of the infrastructure.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  01 mars 2018
 

Neural Networks: Birth, Death and Resurrection

Patrick GALLINARI

The recent rise of modern Artificial Intelligence has been supported by large scale operational deployments of machine learning algorithms. The dominant technology today in this field is Deep Learning, the modern name of an older technology – Artificial Neural Networks. Is there something special about these methods that make them different from alternative machine learning or statistical techniques? What are the future evolutions of this domain? Is it only a new episode of the Neural Network saga or is it the sign of a deeper and definitive evolution of AI? I will draw an historical perspective on the domain, introducing the main challenges, concepts and evolutions of the field. I will describe some of the recent advances and try to put in evidence some future challenges. This will be illustrated via several application domains in the field of semantic data analysis.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  11 janvier 2018
 

Adaptive Resource Management for Next Generation Systems

Martin SCHULZ

As we move into the exascale era and beyond, high performance computing systems will become more and more resource constrained, and they will face this problem with a growing number of different resources. To solve this problem we need new and more adaptive resource management approaches that can deal with multi-constraint scenarios and that can adjust themselves to changing conditions in the system. In the first part of the talk, I will discuss these challenges using constraints on power and energy as an example and will show how this, in some cases, can have unexpected consequences on application performance.

To solve these challenges, however, we first need to better understand the exact behavior of our systems, their bottlenecks and the impact our workloads have on them. This requires a system wide monitoring and performance data management - from system level measurements to application feedback - combined with the matching analytics capabilities. In the second part of the talk I will discuss concepts to enable such monitoring, how they can be used to feed user facing tools, as well as can be used for new resource management schemes. This is part of a first step towards a more efficient utilization of the scarce resources and can ultimately lead to new design tradeoffs for future systems.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 décembre 2017
 

Privacy-preserving analytics in the cloud

Jon CROWCROFT

This talk is about experience implementing machine learning in a fully decentralized way on low cost home devices, which can potentially lead to large improvements in privacy. The two-sided market of Cloud Analytics emerged almost accidentally, initially from click-through associated with users’ response to search results, and then adopted by many other services, whether web mail or social media. The business model seen by the user is of a free service (storage and tools for photos, video, social media etc). The value to the provider is untrammeled access to the users' data over space and time, allowing upfront income from the ability to run recommenders and targeted adverts, to background market research about who is interested in what information, goods and services, when and where. The value to the user is increased personalisation. This all comes at a cost, both of privacy (and the risk of loss of reputation or even money) for the user, and at the price of running highly expensive data centers for the providers, and increased cost in bandwidth and energy consumption (mobile network costs & device battery life). The attack surface of our lives expands to cover just about everything.

This talk will examine several alternative directions that this will evolve in the future.

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