LIG Keynote Speeches

Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 juillet 2019
 

Abstraction in Education

Arnold L. ROSENBERG
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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  02 mai 2019
 

Contrasting artificial intelligence with human intelligence: In search of alternatives for the future of AI

Jean-Louis DESSALLES

Some artificial intelligence techniques were recently able to scale up, provoking what many consider as a technical revolution. However, the type of AI that proved so successful in the past decade relies on the exploitation of massive data, and is limited to narrow domains of expertise. By contrast, human intelligence is very efficient at making broad inferences from limited evidence. I will highlight a few qualitative differences between artificial intelligence and human intelligence. These differences are mainly due to a small set of cognitive operations, such as contrast or simplicity detection, that human beings perform on the fly. I will also suggest that attempting to bridge the gap between these two forms of intelligence might be the best way to improve artificial systems in the future.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 avril 2019
 

Benefits and Hazards of "Public" vs "Private" vs "Local" DNS

Paul VIXIE

Since commercialization and privatization of the Internet first began in the 1990's, there has been a steady push to move access side DNS (called "recursive") away from customer networks and towards first ISP's and later Cisco, Google, IBM, and Cloudflare. What are the real motives for this trend? What are the risks and costs, and who pays them? Dr. Vixie has worked in the DNS field since 1989 and has invented many of the monitoring and filtering capabilities now used by nearly all DNS services, and he will try to explain what's happening. Special attention will be paid to the new web-based "DNS over HTTP" or "DoH" protocol now being strongly pushed by Mozilla and others.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 mars 2019
 

Put That There: 30 Years of Research on Multimodal Interaction

James CROWLEY

Humans interact with the world using five major senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Almost all interaction with the environment is naturally multimodal, as audio, tactile or paralinguistic cues provide confirmation for physical actions and spoken commands. Multimodal interaction seeks to fully exploit these parallel channels for perception and action to provide robust, natural interaction. 
Richard Bolt’s "Put That There" (1980) provided an early paradigm that demonstrated the power of multimodality and helped attract researchers from a variety of disciplines to study a new approach for computing that moves beyond desktop graphical user interfaces (GUI). A series of workshops on Perceptual User Interfaces, as well as the organization of the 1st ICMI in Beijing in 1996 and eventually to the creation of the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, in 2011. 
In this talk I will look back to the origins of the scientific community of multimodal interaction, and review some of the more salient results that have emerged over the last 30 years including results in machine perception, system architecture, and human-computer interaction. I will illustrate these with demonstrations of multimodal interaction with smart environments, constructed in Grenoble in the period 1990 to 2010. 
Recently a number of game-changing technologies such as deep learning, cloud computing, and planetary scale data collection have emerged to provide robust solutions to historically hard problems. As a result, scientific understanding of multimodal interaction gas taken on new relevance as construction of practical systems becomes feasible. I will discuss the impact of these new technologies and the opportunities and challenges that they raise, and conclude with a discussion of the importance of convergence with cognitive science and cognitive systems to provide foundations for intelligent, human-centered interactive systems that learn and fully understand humans and human-to-human social interaction, in order to provide services that surpass the abilities of the most intelligent human servants.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  19 février 2019
 

Algorithms for the Operation and Design of Bike-sharing Systems

David SHMOYS

Bike-sharing systems are changing the urban transportation landscape; for example, New York launched the largest bike-sharing system in North America in May 2013, and by 2017 there were roughly 17 million individual trips taken. We have worked with Citibike and their parent company Motivate, using analytics and optimization to change how they manage the system. Huge rush-hour usage imbalances the system - we answer the following two questions: where should bikes be at the start of a day and how can we mitigate the imbalances that develop?
We will survey the algorithmic tools we have employed for the former question, where we developed an approach based on continuous-time Markov chains combined with integer programming models to compute stocking levels for the bikes, as well as methods employed for optimizing (and re-optimizing) the capacity of the stations. For the question of mitigating the imbalances that result, we will describe both heuristic methods and approximation algorithms that guide both mid-rush hour and overnight rebalancing, as well as for the positioning of corrals, which have been one of the most effective means of creating adaptive capacity in the system. More recently, we have guided the development of Bike Angels, a program to incentivize users to crowdsource “rebalancing rides”, and we will describe its underlying analytics.

This is joint work with Daniel Freund, Shane Henderson, and Eoin O’Mahony, as well as Hangil Chung, Aaron Ferber, Nanjing Jian, Ashkan Nourozi-Fard, Alice Paul, and David Williamson.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 février 2019
 

Trading off memory for bandwidth in a content-centric Internet

Jim ROBERTS

Some 96% of Internet traffic is currently generated by the transfer of digitized content, directly from content providers (CPs) like Netflix and Google, or via content delivery networks (CDNs) like Akamai and Limelite. In such a content-centric network there is clearly scope for significant economies in the cost of infrastructure by trading off memory for bandwidth. By retrieving popular content items from local storage, requirements for upstream bandwidth are greatly reduced. These economies are imperfectly realized in the current network where there is a mismatch between the objectives of network operators on one hand, and major CPs and CDNs on the other. The latter tend to jealously protect their profitable business models, notably by encrypting content delivery and thus preventing operators from transparently caching popular items at advantageous sites. They also have little incentive to cooperate in optimizing infrastructure costs through proactive placements, as long as their customers experience adequate quality. The talk will discuss how the Internet is likely to change to more effectively deal with its content-centric demand. Our analysis is based on mathematical models developed to determine cache hit rates accounting for observed characteristics of content popularity. These models enable a quantification of the memory for bandwidth tradeoff and an evaluation of alternative network structures. Our conclusion is that the future Internet will deliver the vast majority of content from datacenter-equipped central offices at the edge of the core network, or from caches located even closer to users in the access network. Most content delivery will still be controlled by major CPs and CDNs and we discuss how the network infrastructure owner will be able to persuade them to realize optimal placements through an appropriate pricing scheme.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  10 janvier 2019
 

Privacy-preserving aggregation of data from multiple sources

David POINTCHEVAL

Gigabits of data are regularly aggregated in order to deliver statistics and recommendations, or even to make decisions. These data are processed in clear by many providers that offer valuable services, but at the cost of a huge risk with respect to privacy. The providers themselves or even hackers could exploit these data for malicious purposes. Privacy-by-design would be preferable.
Cryptography has recently developed new tools in order to allow aggregation on encrypted data, with fully homomorphic encryption and functional encryption. However, whereas they work well for one user, they fail to aggregate data that come from different sources, in particular when these sources do not trust each other.
In this talk, we will present new techniques of aggregation for data that come from multiple mutually distrustful sources, so that privacy is guaranteed, and the data owners keep control on the performed aggregation.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  08 novembre 2018
 

40 years of static analysis of numerical programs

Nicolas HALBWACHS

Static analysis of programs consists in extracting guaranteed properties about all executions of a program without executing it. Such properties are useful in compilation, verification, optimization and evaluation of programs. Abstract interpretation, introduced by Patrick and Radhia Cousot in the late seventies, is the theoretical framework of static analysis. In this talk, we will focus on static analysis of numerical properties, like variable boundedness or more general invariant relations between numerical variables. During the last decades, such analyses have been widely studied, in view of finding a compromise between the expressiveness of considered properties and the cost of the analysis. We will try to summarise these works together with their main applications.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 octobre 2018
 

Majority judgment: Why it should be used to rank and elect

Rida LARAKI

Every well-known voting system in use today hides important vices that can deny the will of the electorate including majority vote with only two candidates (the domination paradox), approval voting, all methods that ask voters to compare candidates (i.e., rank-order them), and point-summing methods. The underlying reason: the inability of voters to adequately and honestly express their opinions. Majority judgment asks voters to evaluate every candidate in an easily understood common language of ordinal grades such as: Great, Good, Average, Poor, or Terrible. Majorities determine the electorate’s evaluation of each candidate and the ranking between every pair of candidates (necessarily transitive), with the first-placed among them the winner.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 juin 2018
 

The Cognitive Packet Network - Reinforcement based Network Routing with Random Neural Networks

Erol GELENBE

The Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) is an experimental network routing protocol which uses specific Quality of Service (QoS) objectives incorporated in a Goal Function, together with network measurement by Smart Packets (SPs). It updates neural network based Oracles in routers using Reinforcement Learning, in order to dynamically select network paths so that end users can convey their payload traffic with a performance that matches the Goal as closely as possible. The Goal can include conventional QoS metrics such as delay and loss, as well as Real-Time objectives, as well as newer metrics of interest including Energy Consumption and Security. Payload traffic is forwarded using source or segment routing, selected through the reinforcement learning approach, while SPs conduct their exploration using a node by node process by seeking the best direction from each Oracle. CPN has been implemented in various contexts: on 10-40 node test-beds, on an intercontinental scale as an overlay network, within SDN routers, and as a means to convey task requests over the Internet to Cloud servers. Our presentation will detail the CPN algorithm and the Random Neural Networks that are used to implement the Oracles. We will also present relate experimental measurements and results. The work has appeared in a variety of journals and conferences including CACM, Proceedings IEEE, IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comms.

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