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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 juillet 2019
 

Abstraction in Education

Arnold L. ROSENBERG
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Journée thématique
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CALMIP / GRICAD
 -  27 juin 2019
 

Les enjeux européens autour de la question des données. Les DMPs, H2020 et les programmes à venir

Corinne JOFFRE

Corinne Joffre, Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées

Retrouvez l'intégralité des vidéos de la formation DMP

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Journée thématique
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SARI
 -  06 juin 2019
 

Intelligence Artificielle, Machine Learning et Deep Learning, ou quand les neurones prennent le pouvoir. Principes, usages et exemples.

Jean-Luc PAROUTY

Depuis quelques années, les techniques basées sur l'apprentissage artificiel et plus particulièrement les réseaux de neurones, ont permis d'obtenir des résultats spectaculaires. L'avènement de ces techniques est le résultat d'un long processus, parsemé de controverses et de rebondissements, dont l'impact et en mesure de changer profondément notre méthode scientifique.

Retrouvez l'intégralité des vidéos de SARI : Intelligence Artificielle, Machine Learning et Deep Learning

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  02 mai 2019
 

Contrasting artificial intelligence with human intelligence: In search of alternatives for the future of AI

Jean-Louis DESSALLES

Some artificial intelligence techniques were recently able to scale up, provoking what many consider as a technical revolution. However, the type of AI that proved so successful in the past decade relies on the exploitation of massive data, and is limited to narrow domains of expertise. By contrast, human intelligence is very efficient at making broad inferences from limited evidence. I will highlight a few qualitative differences between artificial intelligence and human intelligence. These differences are mainly due to a small set of cognitive operations, such as contrast or simplicity detection, that human beings perform on the fly. I will also suggest that attempting to bridge the gap between these two forms of intelligence might be the best way to improve artificial systems in the future.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 avril 2019
 

Benefits and Hazards of "Public" vs "Private" vs "Local" DNS

Paul VIXIE

Since commercialization and privatization of the Internet first began in the 1990's, there has been a steady push to move access side DNS (called "recursive") away from customer networks and towards first ISP's and later Cisco, Google, IBM, and Cloudflare. What are the real motives for this trend? What are the risks and costs, and who pays them? Dr. Vixie has worked in the DNS field since 1989 and has invented many of the monitoring and filtering capabilities now used by nearly all DNS services, and he will try to explain what's happening. Special attention will be paid to the new web-based "DNS over HTTP" or "DoH" protocol now being strongly pushed by Mozilla and others.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 mars 2019
 

Put That There: 30 Years of Research on Multimodal Interaction

James CROWLEY

Humans interact with the world using five major senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Almost all interaction with the environment is naturally multimodal, as audio, tactile or paralinguistic cues provide confirmation for physical actions and spoken commands. Multimodal interaction seeks to fully exploit these parallel channels for perception and action to provide robust, natural interaction. 
Richard Bolt’s "Put That There" (1980) provided an early paradigm that demonstrated the power of multimodality and helped attract researchers from a variety of disciplines to study a new approach for computing that moves beyond desktop graphical user interfaces (GUI). A series of workshops on Perceptual User Interfaces, as well as the organization of the 1st ICMI in Beijing in 1996 and eventually to the creation of the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, in 2011. 
In this talk I will look back to the origins of the scientific community of multimodal interaction, and review some of the more salient results that have emerged over the last 30 years including results in machine perception, system architecture, and human-computer interaction. I will illustrate these with demonstrations of multimodal interaction with smart environments, constructed in Grenoble in the period 1990 to 2010. 
Recently a number of game-changing technologies such as deep learning, cloud computing, and planetary scale data collection have emerged to provide robust solutions to historically hard problems. As a result, scientific understanding of multimodal interaction gas taken on new relevance as construction of practical systems becomes feasible. I will discuss the impact of these new technologies and the opportunities and challenges that they raise, and conclude with a discussion of the importance of convergence with cognitive science and cognitive systems to provide foundations for intelligent, human-centered interactive systems that learn and fully understand humans and human-to-human social interaction, in order to provide services that surpass the abilities of the most intelligent human servants.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  19 février 2019
 

Algorithms for the Operation and Design of Bike-sharing Systems

David SHMOYS

Bike-sharing systems are changing the urban transportation landscape; for example, New York launched the largest bike-sharing system in North America in May 2013, and by 2017 there were roughly 17 million individual trips taken. We have worked with Citibike and their parent company Motivate, using analytics and optimization to change how they manage the system. Huge rush-hour usage imbalances the system - we answer the following two questions: where should bikes be at the start of a day and how can we mitigate the imbalances that develop?
We will survey the algorithmic tools we have employed for the former question, where we developed an approach based on continuous-time Markov chains combined with integer programming models to compute stocking levels for the bikes, as well as methods employed for optimizing (and re-optimizing) the capacity of the stations. For the question of mitigating the imbalances that result, we will describe both heuristic methods and approximation algorithms that guide both mid-rush hour and overnight rebalancing, as well as for the positioning of corrals, which have been one of the most effective means of creating adaptive capacity in the system. More recently, we have guided the development of Bike Angels, a program to incentivize users to crowdsource “rebalancing rides”, and we will describe its underlying analytics.

This is joint work with Daniel Freund, Shane Henderson, and Eoin O’Mahony, as well as Hangil Chung, Aaron Ferber, Nanjing Jian, Ashkan Nourozi-Fard, Alice Paul, and David Williamson.

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Journée thématique
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LIG
 -  19 février 2019
 

Introduction / State of the Union of Eclipse IoT

Noël DE PALMA / Gaël BLONDELLE

Retrouvez l'intégralité des vidéos de l'Eclipse IoT Day 2019

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 février 2019
 

Trading off memory for bandwidth in a content-centric Internet

Jim ROBERTS

Some 96% of Internet traffic is currently generated by the transfer of digitized content, directly from content providers (CPs) like Netflix and Google, or via content delivery networks (CDNs) like Akamai and Limelite. In such a content-centric network there is clearly scope for significant economies in the cost of infrastructure by trading off memory for bandwidth. By retrieving popular content items from local storage, requirements for upstream bandwidth are greatly reduced. These economies are imperfectly realized in the current network where there is a mismatch between the objectives of network operators on one hand, and major CPs and CDNs on the other. The latter tend to jealously protect their profitable business models, notably by encrypting content delivery and thus preventing operators from transparently caching popular items at advantageous sites. They also have little incentive to cooperate in optimizing infrastructure costs through proactive placements, as long as their customers experience adequate quality. The talk will discuss how the Internet is likely to change to more effectively deal with its content-centric demand. Our analysis is based on mathematical models developed to determine cache hit rates accounting for observed characteristics of content popularity. These models enable a quantification of the memory for bandwidth tradeoff and an evaluation of alternative network structures. Our conclusion is that the future Internet will deliver the vast majority of content from datacenter-equipped central offices at the edge of the core network, or from caches located even closer to users in the access network. Most content delivery will still be controlled by major CPs and CDNs and we discuss how the network infrastructure owner will be able to persuade them to realize optimal placements through an appropriate pricing scheme.

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Évènement
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GENCI / GRICAD
 -  17 janvier 2019
 

Hackathon GENCI 2018 à Grenoble

GRICAD

Le hackathon HPC est un évènement coordonné par GENCI et qui s’est tenu en décembre 2018 dans différents mésocentres de calcul intensif français. Son objectif était de réunir des équipes d’étudiants, d’ingénieurs et de chercheurs autour de sujets issus de réelles problématiques de recherche portant sur des codes logiciels de calcul intensif (portage, optimisation, implémentation de nouvelles fonctionnalités, etc.). A Grenoble, deux équipes, encadrées par GriCAD, ont participé à cet exercice sur deux sujets : l’un portant sur un code utilisé en physique des particules , l’autre portant sur un code proposant une méthode aux éléments discrets pour la micro-mécanique (logiciel nommé YADE). Il est à noter que cette dernière équipe a été désignée lauréate de l’exercice dans la catégorie « optimisation ».

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