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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 mars 2019
 

Put That There: 30 Years of Research on Multimodal Interaction

James CROWLEY

Humans interact with the world using five major senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Almost all interaction with the environment is naturally multimodal, as audio, tactile or paralinguistic cues provide confirmation for physical actions and spoken commands. Multimodal interaction seeks to fully exploit these parallel channels for perception and action to provide robust, natural interaction. 
Richard Bolt’s "Put That There" (1980) provided an early paradigm that demonstrated the power of multimodality and helped attract researchers from a variety of disciplines to study a new approach for computing that moves beyond desktop graphical user interfaces (GUI). A series of workshops on Perceptual User Interfaces, as well as the organization of the 1st ICMI in Beijing in 1996 and eventually to the creation of the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, in 2011. 
In this talk I will look back to the origins of the scientific community of multimodal interaction, and review some of the more salient results that have emerged over the last 30 years including results in machine perception, system architecture, and human-computer interaction. I will illustrate these with demonstrations of multimodal interaction with smart environments, constructed in Grenoble in the period 1990 to 2010. 
Recently a number of game-changing technologies such as deep learning, cloud computing, and planetary scale data collection have emerged to provide robust solutions to historically hard problems. As a result, scientific understanding of multimodal interaction gas taken on new relevance as construction of practical systems becomes feasible. I will discuss the impact of these new technologies and the opportunities and challenges that they raise, and conclude with a discussion of the importance of convergence with cognitive science and cognitive systems to provide foundations for intelligent, human-centered interactive systems that learn and fully understand humans and human-to-human social interaction, in order to provide services that surpass the abilities of the most intelligent human servants.

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Journée thématique
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LIG
 -  19 février 2019
 

Introduction / State of the Union of Eclipse IoT

Noël DE PALMA / Gaël BLONDELLE

Retrouvez l'intégralité des vidéos de l'Eclipse IoT Day 2019

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  07 février 2019
 

Trading off memory for bandwidth in a content-centric Internet

Jim ROBERTS

Some 96% of Internet traffic is currently generated by the transfer of digitized content, directly from content providers (CPs) like Netflix and Google, or via content delivery networks (CDNs) like Akamai and Limelite. In such a content-centric network there is clearly scope for significant economies in the cost of infrastructure by trading off memory for bandwidth. By retrieving popular content items from local storage, requirements for upstream bandwidth are greatly reduced. These economies are imperfectly realized in the current network where there is a mismatch between the objectives of network operators on one hand, and major CPs and CDNs on the other. The latter tend to jealously protect their profitable business models, notably by encrypting content delivery and thus preventing operators from transparently caching popular items at advantageous sites. They also have little incentive to cooperate in optimizing infrastructure costs through proactive placements, as long as their customers experience adequate quality. The talk will discuss how the Internet is likely to change to more effectively deal with its content-centric demand. Our analysis is based on mathematical models developed to determine cache hit rates accounting for observed characteristics of content popularity. These models enable a quantification of the memory for bandwidth tradeoff and an evaluation of alternative network structures. Our conclusion is that the future Internet will deliver the vast majority of content from datacenter-equipped central offices at the edge of the core network, or from caches located even closer to users in the access network. Most content delivery will still be controlled by major CPs and CDNs and we discuss how the network infrastructure owner will be able to persuade them to realize optimal placements through an appropriate pricing scheme.

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Évènement
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GENCI / GRICAD
 -  17 janvier 2019
 

Hackathon GENCI 2018 à Grenoble

GRICAD

Le hackathon HPC est un évènement coordonné par GENCI et qui s’est tenu en décembre 2018 dans différents mésocentres de calcul intensif français. Son objectif était de réunir des équipes d’étudiants, d’ingénieurs et de chercheurs autour de sujets issus de réelles problématiques de recherche portant sur des codes logiciels de calcul intensif (portage, optimisation, implémentation de nouvelles fonctionnalités, etc.). A Grenoble, deux équipes, encadrées par GriCAD, ont participé à cet exercice sur deux sujets : l’un portant sur un code utilisé en physique des particules , l’autre portant sur un code proposant une méthode aux éléments discrets pour la micro-mécanique (logiciel nommé YADE). Il est à noter que cette dernière équipe a été désignée lauréate de l’exercice dans la catégorie « optimisation ».

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  10 janvier 2019
 

Privacy-preserving aggregation of data from multiple sources

David POINTCHEVAL

Gigabits of data are regularly aggregated in order to deliver statistics and recommendations, or even to make decisions. These data are processed in clear by many providers that offer valuable services, but at the cost of a huge risk with respect to privacy. The providers themselves or even hackers could exploit these data for malicious purposes. Privacy-by-design would be preferable.
Cryptography has recently developed new tools in order to allow aggregation on encrypted data, with fully homomorphic encryption and functional encryption. However, whereas they work well for one user, they fail to aggregate data that come from different sources, in particular when these sources do not trust each other.
In this talk, we will present new techniques of aggregation for data that come from multiple mutually distrustful sources, so that privacy is guaranteed, and the data owners keep control on the performed aggregation.

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Journée thématique
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ECOINFO
 -  26 novembre 2018
 

L'obsolescence, dans tous les sens : Introduction

Françoise BERTHOUD

Retouvez l'intégralité des vidéos la conférence EcoInfo : L'obsolescence dans tous les sens

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  08 novembre 2018
 

40 years of static analysis of numerical programs

Nicolas HALBWACHS

Static analysis of programs consists in extracting guaranteed properties about all executions of a program without executing it. Such properties are useful in compilation, verification, optimization and evaluation of programs. Abstract interpretation, introduced by Patrick and Radhia Cousot in the late seventies, is the theoretical framework of static analysis. In this talk, we will focus on static analysis of numerical properties, like variable boundedness or more general invariant relations between numerical variables. During the last decades, such analyses have been widely studied, in view of finding a compromise between the expressiveness of considered properties and the cost of the analysis. We will try to summarise these works together with their main applications.

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Les Grandes Conférences du LIG - The LIG Keynote Speeches
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LIG
 -  04 octobre 2018
 

Majority judgment: Why it should be used to rank and elect

Rida LARAKI

Every well-known voting system in use today hides important vices that can deny the will of the electorate including majority vote with only two candidates (the domination paradox), approval voting, all methods that ask voters to compare candidates (i.e., rank-order them), and point-summing methods. The underlying reason: the inability of voters to adequately and honestly express their opinions. Majority judgment asks voters to evaluate every candidate in an easily understood common language of ordinal grades such as: Great, Good, Average, Poor, or Terrible. Majorities determine the electorate’s evaluation of each candidate and the ranking between every pair of candidates (necessarily transitive), with the first-placed among them the winner.

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